TAB F - World Health Organization Depleted Uranium Monograph: "Depleted Uranium Sources, Exposure and Health Effects" 
Summary. This monograph is a scientific review on depleted uranium and is part of the World Health Organization's (WHOs) ongoing assessment of the possible health effects of exposure to chemical, physical, and biological agents. It addresses environmental health questions about the possible health consequences to populations residing in conflict areas where depleted uranium (DU) munitions were used. While the main purpose is to examine health risks that could arise from exposure to DU, the monograph is also intended as a desk reference providing useful information and recommendations to WHO member states so that they may deal appropriately with the issue of DU and human health.
Key Points. Due to the wide variation in possible exposure scenarios, the WHO recommends a tiered approach to exposure assessment: Tier 1, a desk assessment; Tier 2, a field study and analysis; and Tier 3, a detailed site-specific exposure assessment. The monograph recommends three echelons of protective measures:
Health prognosis: "For chronic exposure at low uranium levels no permanent damage has been reported. Occupational exposure of uranium mine workers is not known to have been detrimental to their health; only a few have developed transitory anaemia. Soldiers who have incorporated uranium fragments have not shown any renal problems. The radiological hazard is likely to be very small. No increase of leukemia or other cancers has been established following exposure to uranium or DU."
The monograph also identified areas for research that would significantly enhance knowledge and lead to better assessments of health risks from exposure to DU. "In particular, studies are needed to clarify our understanding of the extent, reversibility and possible existence of thresholds for kidney damage in people exposed to DU." A lack of information was noted about the possible biological action of uranium or DU in the areas of neurotoxicity, reproductive and developmental effects, hematological effects, and genotoxicity.
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